Jokaisen yhteiskunnallisen systeemin ja teoreettisella tasolla poliittis-taloudellisen ideologian täytyy kyetä ratkaisemaan käytäntöön sovellettavalla ja käytännössä toimivalla tavalla haitanteko- ja vapaamatkustajaongelmat. Jos ne eivät sitä tee tai niillä on huono historiallinen ansioluettelo tällä saralla, ne eivät ole varteenotettavia systeemeitä ja teorioita.
Pieni lainaus Wikipedian Social loafing -artikkelista:
"A 2005 study by Laku Chidambaram and Lai Lai Tung based their research model on Latané’s social impact theory, and hypothesized that as group size and dispersion grew, the group’s work would be affected in the following areas: Members will contribute less in both quantity and quality, final group output will be of lower quality, and a group’s output will be affected both by individual factors and contextual factors.
A sample of 240 undergraduate business students were randomly split into forty teams (half of the teams were 4-person and half 8-person), and these teams were randomly assigned to either a collocated or distributed setting. The participants were to complete a task that asked them to act as a board of directors of a winery with an image problem. They were to find and discuss alternatives, and at the end submit their alternative with rationale. Collocated groups worked at a table together, while distributed groups did the same task at separate computers that allowed for electronic, networked communication. The same technology was used by both collocated and distributed groups.
Chidambaram and Tung found that group size matters immensely in a group’s performance. The smaller the group, the more likely each member is to participate, regardless of range (dispersed or collocated). The main difference stated between distributed and collocated groups is the social pressure to at least appear busy that is present in collocated groups. When others are present, people feel the need to look as if they are working hard, while those who are not in the presence of others do not. ....
When a group member does not feel that his/her effort is justified in the context of the overall group, the individual will be less willing to assert the effort. If the group size is large, members can feel that their contribution will not be worth much to the overall cause because so many other contributions can or should occur. This leads people to not contribute as much or at all in large groups as they might have in smaller groups."
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